Remember Steinmetz

It might be a good time to revisit David Steinmetz’ 1980 game-changer, “The Superiority of Pre-Critical Exegesis” (Theology Today 37: 27-38). You don’t have to agree with all of his conclusions to appreciate his trenchant critique of the historical-critical method and his praise of patristic and medieval interpretation. Here’s the conclusion:

The defenders of the single meaning theory usually concede that the medieval approach to the Bible met the religious needs of the Christian community, but that it did so at the unacceptable price of doing violence to the biblical text. The fact that the historical-critical method after two hundred years is still struggling for more than a precarious foothold in that same religious community is generally blamed on the ignorance and conservatism of the Christian laity and the sloth or moral cowardice of its pastors.

I should like to suggest an alternative hypothesis. The medieval theory of levels of meaning in the biblical text, with all its undoubted defects, flourished because it is true, while the modern theory of a single meaning, with all its demonstrable virtues, is false. Until the historical-critical method becomes critical of its own theoretical foundations and develops a hermeneutical theory adequate to the nature of the text which it is interpreting, it will remain restricted-as it deserves to be-to the guild and the academy, where the question of truth can endlessly be deferred.

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2 thoughts on “Remember Steinmetz

  1. Steinmetz seems to be mostly ignored by many biblical scholars today. The higher critical method once used mostly by moderate to liberal scholars is mainstream among Evangelicals today. So mainstream that many of those who use it I respect will say they really are not concerned about ancient models or that simply does not function within their academic discipline. If the academy is supposed to be training and educating ministers, is this not part of the problem? Does not biblical studies need both retrieval and renewal and how can there be retrieval if we are only concerned about contemporary approaches to the Bible?

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